Deep neural networks are vulnerable to evasion attacks, i.e., carefully crafted examples designed to fool a model at test time. Attacks that successfully evade an ensemble of models can transfer to other independently trained models, which proves useful in black-box settings. Unfortunately, these methods involve heavy computation costs to train the models forming the ensemble. To overcome this, we propose a new method to generate transferable adversarial examples efficiently. Inspired by Bayesian deep learning, our method builds such ensembles by sampling from the posterior distribution of neural network weights during a single training process. Experiments on CIFAR-10 show that our approach improves the transfer rates significantly at equal or even lower computation costs. Intra-architecture transfer rate is increased by 23% compared to classical ensemble-based attacks, while requiring 4 times less training epochs. In the inter-architecture case, we show that we can combine our method with ensemble-based attacks to increase their transfer rate by up to 15% with constant training computational cost.
The manuscript can be downloaded from arXiv.